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Digitized Data of China Astronomical Plates: Image and Astrometric Catalog
Publish Time: 2024-03-08
DOI: 10.12149/100742
CSTR: 11379.11.100742
Astronomical plates are the precious heritage of astronomical observation research. With the support of the Special Key Project for Fundamental Work in Science and Technology of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Shanghai plate digitization laboratory completed the scanning and archiving of 29,314 plates in 2017. On this basis, the research team of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory conducted further astrometric calibration work on the digitized astronomical plates based on the Gaia DR2 catalog, converting the initial version of the digital plates into astronomical digital images in the standard fits format to satisfy the research work of relevant professional astronomers. The current data release contains 15,696 high quality digital plates and corresponding astrometric results, with the observation targets mainly being extrasolar objects. This batch of data contains observations from nine telescopes at five Chinese astronomical stations, namely, the National Astronomical Observatory, the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, the Purple Mountain Observatory, the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, and the Qingdao Observatory, and spans the period from 1901 to 1998. The astrometric precision is mainly related to the focal length of the telescopes. For the plates of long focal length telescopes, such as the 40cm binoculars refractor telescope and the 1.56-meter reflector telescope of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, and the 1-meter reflector telescope of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, the astrometric precison can be as high as 0.1-0.3″. The differences between this release and the "Digitized Data of China Astronomical Plates: Early Data Release" are as follows: (1) The fits header information of all 6,615 astronomical plates in the early batch has been updated, and the astrometric results of these plates have been added. (2) 9081 astronomical plates and the corresponding astrometric results have been added.
Map of the surface of the Moon(the Third Edition)
Publish Time: 2024-02-22
DOI: 10.12149/100891
CSTR: 11379.21.100891
The third edition of ultra-high definition lunar surface map, with 450 million pixels, has 1294 lunar surface land place names marked, including 15 different types of landmarks, covering almost all lunar surface landmarks with observational value that can be seen by amateur telescopes, including 655 Crater, 348 Satellite Feature, 19 Oceanus, 17 Mare, 10 Sinus, 3 Palus, 9 Promontorium, 103 Rima, 8 Vallis, 43 Mons, and 37 Dorsums, 8 Rupes, 9 Catena, 1 Albedo Feature point and 24 Landing Site Names. Compared to the second version, the third board has made improvements in the following aspects: (1) adding new landmarks for four crater and eleven rimaes--Armstrong crater, Collins ,Aldrin crater, Bobillier, Rimae Pitatus, Rimae Aristarchus, Rimae Apollonius, RimaeVladimir, Rima Flammarion, Rimae Gassendi, Rima Rudolf, Rima Mairan, Rimae Palmieri, Rimae Parry, Rimae Chacornac; (2) correcting three incorrect markings--Rima Revise the Rimae Aristarchus to the Rimae Alzimovich, correct the position of the Vallis Snellius , and move the position of the Yangel' crater to the correct position; and (3) providing more precise markings for terrain with unclear markings-- add boxes, circles, or arrows to accurately identify landmarks such as Rima, Rupes, Mons, Dorsums, Promontorium etc that are not clearly labeled yet. If you have more suggestions on the revision of land place names, please contact Liu Jing of Dongguan Science Museum or the National Astronomical Data Center.
FASHI Data Release 1
Publish Time: 2023-12-13
DOI: 10.12149/100875
CSTR: 11379.11.100875
The FAST All Sky HI survey (FASHI) was designed to cover the entire sky observable by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), spanning approximately 22000 square degrees of declination between -14 deg and +66 deg, and in the frequency range of 1050-1450 MHz, with the expectation of eventually detecting more than 100000 HI sources. Between August 2020 and June 2023, FASHI had covered more than 7600 square degrees, which is approximately 35% of the total sky observable by FAST. It has a median detection sensitivity of around 0.76 mJy/beam and a spectral line velocity resolution of ~6.4 km/s at a frequency of ~1.4 GHz. As of now, a total of 41741 extragalactic HI sources have been detected in the frequency range 1305.5-1419.5 MHz, corresponding to a redshift limit of z<0.09. By cross-matching FASHI sources with the Siena Galaxy Atlas (SGA) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalogs, we found that 16972 (40.7%) sources have spectroscopic redshifts and 10975 (26.3%) sources have only photometric redshifts. Most of the remaining 13794 (33.0%) HI sources are located in the direction of the Galactic plane, making their optical counterparts difficult to identify due to high extinction or high contamination of Galactic stellar sources. Based on current survey results, the FASHI survey is an unprecedented blind extragalactic HI survey. It has higher spectral and spatial resolution and broader coverage than the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA). When completed, FASHI will provide the largest extragalactic HI catalog and an objective view of HI content and large-scale structure in the local universe.
Solar Physics Historical Data
Publish Time: 2023-09-01
DOI: 10.12149/100777
CSTR: 11379.11.100777
This project primarily involves the processing of historical solar observation data in China, sourced from multiple domestic solar observation stations. The data exists in various formats such as paper, film, and glass plates, and is primarily scanned and digitized for electronic presentation. The electronic data generated includes: hand-drawn sunspot maps for China from 1925 to 2015, solar eclipse spectroscopic plates from Papua New Guinea in 1983, historical data from the National Astronomical Observatory of China's solar radio flux meter from 1958 to 1994, historical observation data from the National Astronomical Observatory of China's solar radio spectrometer from 1994 to 2014, solar spectrum magnetic field data from Yunnan Observatory from 1976 to 1985, fine structure plates of the sun from Yunnan Observatory from 1984 to 1993, full-disk chromosphere plates from Yunnan Observatory from 1981 to 1994, solar-terrestrial physics data for China from 1971 to 2001, and important solar eruption event data from 2000 to 2014. Some of the data in the project is electronically preserved and has undergone scientific-level data processing to provide data suitable for scientific applications. The standardization of data into scientific-grade data includes: solar magnetic field observation data from Huairou, Beijing from 1987 to 2011, solar velocity field observation data from Huairou, Beijing from 1987 to 2011, and two-dimensional spectroscopic observation data from the solar tower from 1999 to 2015. Throughout the data processing process of the entire project, various data processing software has been developed, and a standardization report for solar physics data has been established. The data processing software includes digitization of solar radio paper tape observation data, software for extracting information from scanned images, software capable of handling multiple data levels, and standardized data processing software. The standardization report for solar physics data is primarily based on international standards combined with specific data processing procedures.
The Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4)
Publish Time: 2017-10-23
The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4, was released in 2012 August (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions (PMs). UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise five-band photometry was added for about half the stars. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos, and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete from the brightest stars to about magnitude R=16. Epoch 1998–2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph’s “red lens,” equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and PMs are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion program form the basis for PMs, while the Northern Proper Motion first epoch plates serve the same purpose for the rest of the sky. These data are supplemented by 2MASS near-IR photometry for about 110 million stars and five-band (B,V,g,r,i) APASS data for over 51 million stars. Thus the published UCAC4, as were UCAC3 and UCAC2, is a compiled catalog with the UCAC observational program being a major component. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC4 at mean epoch is about 15–100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the formal errors in PMs range from about 1 to 10 mas/yr depending on magnitude and observing history. Systematic errors in PMs are estimated to be about 1–4 mas/yr
SDSS DR12
Publish Time: 2015-07-31
DOI: 10.12149/102018
Data Release 12 (DR12) is the final release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. DR12 contains all data taken by all phases of the SDSS through 14 July 2014. SDSS-III took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near- infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg^2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg^2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg^2; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer AllWISE Data Release
Publish Time: 2013-11-12
The AllWISE Source Catalog contains astrometry and photometry for 747,634,026 objects detected on the deep AllWISE Atlas Intensity Images. Positions, magnitudes, astrometric and photometric uncertainties, flags indicating the reliability and quality of the source characterizations, and associations with the 2MASS Point and Extended Source Catalog sources are presented for each source. New to the AllWISE Source Catalog are measurements of the apparent motion of each source that exploit the two independent WISE sky coverage epochs. The AllWISE Source Catalog is superior to the WISE All-Sky Release Catalog and should be your primary reference for discrete objects in the mid-IR sky, with the one exception described below. The AllWISE Catalog sensitivity is better in the W1 and W2 bands because of increased depth-of-coverage provided by the coaddition of data from the 4-Band, 3-Band and Post-Cryo survey phases. The photometric accuracy in all four bands is improved because faint source flux biases have been corrected and background estimation has been made more robust. Astrometry accuracy is better because of the correction for the proper motion of 2MASS astrometric reference stars in the 11 years between the two surveys, and the incorporation of the multiple independent source measurements in the image overlap regions into the astrometric solutions. Measurements of the apparent motion of sources are provided for the first time, and improved source flux variability metrics have been computed. The WISE All-Sky Source Catalog provides better photometry for sources brighter than the saturation limit in bands W1 and W2, W1<8 mag and W2<7 mag, that were observed during the Post-Cryo survey phase. Saturated source photometry during the Post-Cryo phase is systematically biased with the respect to that in the other phases, when they were combined in for AllWISE the resulting measurements have larger net uncertainties. The All-Sky Catalog that is limited to data from the 4-Band Cryo phase does not suffer from this bias.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)All Sky Data Release
Publish Time: 2012-04-02
NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mapped the sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm (W1, W2, W3, W4) in 2010 with an angular resolution of 6.1", 6.4", 6.5", & 12.0" in the four bands. WISE achieved 5σ point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in the four bands. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The All-Sky Release includes all data taken during the WISE full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 2010, that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets, a Source Catalog containing positional and photometric information for over 563 million objects detected on the WISE images, and an Explanatory Supplement that is a guide to the format, content, characteristics and cautionary notes for the WISE All-Sky Release products. The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the April 2011 Preliminary Data Release. All-Sky Release ancillary products include a Reject Table containing 284 million detections that were not selected for inclusion in the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million Single-exposure Image sets and a database of over 9.4 billion source extractions from those images, and moving object tracklets identified as part of the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). Here we only provide catalog data.
PMO 13.7m data
Publish Time: 2011-09-01
DOI: 10.12149/100413
CSTR: 11379.11.100413
There are three types of observed data produced by the 13.7-meter millimeter-wave radio telescope. The first type is observed in the single-point observation mode according to the requirements of the observer. Each spectral line contains one Fits file, and one record in the database table corresponds to the header information of one file.A total of 3.06 million spectral lines have been observed since 2003.The second method is to use OTF observation mode to observe data as required by the observer. and two fits cube files are generated after averaging the scan results of the same area mapped every day, with one record in the database corresponding to the header information of that two file. The scan area ranges from 10′ × 10′ to 30′ × 30′, and more than 5,900 areas have been observed since 2011.The third is Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP), The Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has organized MWISP project since November 2011. The 13.7m millimeter wave telescope of the Qinghai Station of PMO has been used to simultaneously observe the three molecular spectral lines of CO(J=1-0) and its isotopes 13CO/C18O(J=1-0) near the galactic plane of the North sky. The first phase of the survey, which has lasted for 10 years, has been completed at the end of April 2021, covering a total of 2,400 square degrees 0°≤ l≤ 240°,|b|≤ 5°, and establishing the Millimeter Wave Radio Astronomy Database. After the discussion of the MWISP survey working group, it was decided to continue the second phase of the MWISP survey and extend the survey area to |b|<10°. This survey will help to expand scientific objectives and provide a wider range of molecular gas distribution data for multi-band astronomical research. The second phase of the survey has begun on September 1, 2021 and is expected to last the next ten years.
The Third US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3)
Publish Time: 2010-04-25
The third US Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC3 was released at the IAU General Assembly on 2009 August 10. It is the first all-sky release in this series and contains just over 100 million objects, about 95 million of them with proper motions, covering about R = 8 to 16 magnitudes. Current epoch positions are obtained from the observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph’s “red lens”, equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Proper motions are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the Southern Hemisphere the Yale/San Juan first epoch plates from the SPM program (YSJ1) form the basis for proper motions. These data are supplemented by all-sky Schmidt plate survey astrometry and photometry obtained from the SuperCOSMOS project, as well as 2MASS near-IR photometry. Major differences of UCAC3 data as compared to UCAC2 include a completely new raw data eduction with improved control over systematic errors in positions, significantly improved photometry, slightly deeper limiting magnitude, coverage of the north pole region, greater completeness by inclusion of double stars and weak detections. This of course leads to a catalog which is not as “clean” as UCAC2 and problem areas are outlined for the user in UCAC3 publishing paper in Zacharias et al 2010. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC3 is about 15 to 100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the errors in proper motions range from 1 to 10 mas/yr depending on magnitude and observing history, with a significant improvement over UCAC2 achieved due to the re-reduced SPM data and inclusion of more astrograph plate data unavailable at the time of UCAC2.